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Arithmetic, Numeracy, Literacy & Imagination: A Research Guide

General Books

The following selected histories, industry reports, and books provide a broad overview of arithmetic within the context of its practical or business applications. Of note are mercantile training guides from the turn of the 18th century, which demonstrate how arithmetic was vital to specific vocational training prior to its much broader standardization across educational curricula throughout the nineteenth century (see the "Business Arithmetic" section of this guide).

The following titles link to fuller bibliographic information in the Library of Congress Online Catalog. Links to additional online content are included when available.