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Cataloging Cartographic Materials

Subject Cutters

Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a classification system that was first developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to organize and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress. The third edition of LCC (released in 1954) was the first to include a full classification scheme for maps. Cartographic materials are now cataloged in the "G" classification schedule, including atlases (G1000-3122), globes (G3160-3171), and maps (G3180-9980). Items are sub-arranged by designated regions, counties, cities, localities, etc. within the G classification schedule, with what is referred to as a "geographic Cutter." A full list of geographic Cutters can be found on ClassWeb Plus and is linked to on the Geographic Cutters page.

The Geography and Map Division maintains and develops a list of subject Cutters for further sub-classification of the specific content of a cartographic item. These subject Cutters are appended to the classification number following the geographic Cutter. The subject Cutters are found below.

Summary of Form and Subject Subdivisions

The physical atlas : a series of maps & notes illustrating the geographical distribution of natural phenomena
Alexander Keith Johnston, The physical atlas : a series of maps & notes illustrating the geographical distribution of natural phenomena, 1848. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

A - Special category maps and atlases
B - Mathematical geography
C - Physical sciences
D - Biogeography
E - Human and cultural geography. Anthropogeography. Human ecology
F - Political geography
G - Economic geography
H - Mines and mineral resources
J - Agriculture
K - Forests and forestry
L - Aquatic biological resources
M - Manufacturing and processing. Service industries
N - Technology Engineering. Public works
P - Transportation and communication
Q - Commerce and trade. Finance
R - Military and naval geography
S - Historical geography

Class with any subject subdivision works which encompass two or more of its listed subtopics or any subtopic(s) not listed. Works on individual social, geographic, or socio-geographic features such as canals, dams, forests, university campuses, historic trails, etc., are classed as geographic features, e. g., G4352.H79, Hoover Dam. Works showing the distribution of a certain type of feature are classed with the subject e.g., G4301.N2, Dams in the New Southwest

A - Special Category Maps and Atlases

Class here works which cannot be placed in any subject group but, because of special format or treatment, are to be separated from general maps and atlases

.A1 Outline and base maps. Plotting charts. Cities (Collective). Suburbs and city regions; e.g. G3701.A1: Outline maps of the United States; G3704.A1: Cities and towns of the United States; G3804.N4A1: Suburbs, or area around New York City
.A15 Business district, center, or downtown of cities
.A2 Index maps. Class here topographic map indexes only; class indexes of special subject maps with the subject, e.g. indexes to geological maps are classed in .C5, Geology
.A25 Digital cartographic materials
.A253 Digital elevation models
.A3 Aerial views. Bird's-eye views
.A35 Panoramas
.A4 Remote-sensing maps. Photomaps. Orthophotomaps. Pictomaps
.A43 Remote sensing images
.A45 Anaglyphs and stereographs
.A5 Pictorial maps
.A6 Cartoon maps
.A63 Cartograms
.A67 Mental maps
.A7 Maps for the blind
.A8 Special geographical names. Class here works on place names of special historical, national, or religious significance, e.g. Christmas, Santa Claus, etc.
.A85 Biographical maps. Maps showing travels of individuals. Class maps showing special groups of people under the subject, e.g. actors are classified in .E645
.A9 Special format. Class here postcards, business cards, placemats, games, mechanical devices, slides, transparencies, metal, stone, stationery, stick charts, fans, powder horns, clay tablets, cloth maps, glass, etc.

B - Mathematical Geography

Class here works on aspects of cartography, surveying, and mapping

.B1Astronomical observatories and observations
.B2Movements of the earth. Including international date line, time zones
.B3Geodetic surveys. Including triangulation networks, prime meridians, base-measuring
.B5Surveying. Extent of areas surveyed or mapped
.B52Aerial photography. Status. Progress
.B7Cartography
.B71Globe gores. Class here pictures of globes or any two-dimensional representation of a globe
.B72Projections. Class here maps whose purpose it is to illustrate a particular projection
.B8Comparative area maps. Comparison diagrams. Class here works showing area comparisons superimposition, distortion, etc., and composite drawings comparing mountain heights, river lengths, etc.

C - Physical Sciences

Class here works on the distribution of natural phenomena of the earth, the atmosphere, and subsurface features.

.C1General
.C18Relief models. Raised relief globes. Digital elevation models, see .A253
.C2Physiography. Geomorphology. Including relief features and bathymetry.
.C21Natural geographic regions. Geophysical divisions
.C23Caves. Underground grottoes
.C28Ground characteristics. Surface quality. Terrain studies. Slope
.C3Hydrology. Hydrogeology. Cf. .N44, Water utilities
.C31Hydrographic surveys. Status. Progress
.C315Drainage basins. Catchment areas
.C32Floods. Cf. .N22, Flood control
.C34Ground water. Water table
.C35Water composition and quality
.C36Mineral waters. For spas, etc., see .E635
.C37Sea ice
.C38Glaciers. Glaciology. Cf. .C74, Icebergs
.C5Geology. Cf. .N244 Engineering geology
.C51Geological surveys. Status. Progress
.C55Dynamic and structural geology. Tectonics. Earthquakes (Seismology). Vulcanology
.C57Stratigraphy and paleontology. Historical geology
.C58Geochemistry
.C7Oceanography. For characteristics and morphology of the ocean bottom, see .C2. For distribution of aquatic life, see .D1. For economic aspects of aquatic life, see .L1-.L5.
.C72Temperature of ocean water
.C73Salinity and density of ocean water
.C74Icebergs
.C75Ocean currents
.C76Ocean tides
.C8Meteorology and climatology. Climate classification systems
.C813Climate regions. Class here works on climate zones, distribution of arid regions, deserts, permafrost areas, tundras, etc.
.C815Weather forecasting
.C82Atmospheric temperature
.C83Insolation and radiation
.C84Structure and mechanics of atmosphere. Atmospheric circulation. Wind systems. Cf. .N852, Air pollution. Smog
.C842Atmospheric pressure. Surface winds
.C86Storms
.C87Atmospheric electricity
.C88Atmospheric moisture and precipitation
.C882Condensation. Dew. Fog, Frost. Cloud cover
.C883Rain
.C884Snow. Snowmelt
.C885Hail
.C886Droughts
.C887Artificial precipitation. Rainmaking
.C9Geophysics
.C92Radioactivity
.C93Terrestrial magnetism
.C95Gravity

D - Biogeography

Class here works on the distribution of plant and animal life, exclusive of human economic activities

.D1General. Cf. .L1-.L5, Aquatic biological resources
.D2Plant geography. Botany. Vegetation
.D4Animal geography. Zoogeography. Including birds, insects, fish, etc. For sport fishing and hunting, see .E63
.D5Wildlife conservation and reserves. Wildlife refuges. Cf. .G3, Conservation (General)

E - Human and Cultural Geography. Anthropogeogaphy. Human ecology

Class here works that are concerned with man as a physical and social being.

.E1General Including ethnology, tribes, ethnic groups, etc.
.E15Archaeological sites. Cities and towns which are ruined, extinct, etc.
.E2Population
.E25Vital statistics. Population increase and decrease. Birth control
.E25Statistical areas. Census tracts
.E27Movements of population (voluntary). Class here works on emigration, immigration, nomadism, tribal migration, transhumance, etc.
.E272Regulation. Quotas
.E29Demographic aspects of disasters. For technical aspects, see special fields, e.g. .C55 Earthquakes; .C32, Floods; .E59, Famine; etc.
.E3Languages. Ethnolinguistics
.E4Religions
.E42Christianity
.E423Ecclesiastical organizations, sects, denominations, administrative areas, etc.
.E424Missions
.E43Judaism
.E44Islam
.E45Hinduism
.E452Brahmanism
.E47Buddhism
.E5Medical geography
.E51Diseases
.E52Medical professions
.E55Public health
.E58Hospitals. Clinics. Dispensaries
.E59Nutrition. Malnutrition. Famine. Cf. .E29, Disasters
.E6Social and cultural geography. Civilizations
.E62Customs and folklore
.E622Social customs (Social and ethnic aspects). Eating and drinking habits. Clothing. For technical and industrial aspects, see .M1-.M95
.E6225Genealogy. Families
.E623Heraldry
.E624Social organizations
.E625Social problems. Class here works on problems arising from the interplay of social forces, e.g. crime, narcotics traffic, slavery, race relations, school integration efforts, efforts at revamping educational systems, confrontations, demonstrations, etc.
.E627Folklore. Mythology
.E628Astrology
.E63Recreation. Sports. Including recreational trails and specific recreational activities, e.g. hiking, camping, hunting, fishing, etc. Class individual trails as geographic features. For historic trails, see .P25
.E635Tourist maps. Tourism
.E64Intellectual and aesthetic life. The arts
.E642Crafts. Special interests. Hobbies
.E644Architecture
.E645Theaters. Drama. Motion pictures
.E646Music
.E648Painting and sculpture
.E65Literature
.E655Museums
.E67Libraries. Class here works on the location and distribution of libraries, those outlining library area classification schemes, etc.
.E68Education
.E7Material culture
.E73Housing. Shelter. Cf. E644 Architecture
.E74Income. Income tax
.E75Treasure trove. Cf. .P57 Wreck charts
.E9Slavery

F - Political Geography

Class here works on boundaries, administrative and political divisions, sovereignty, spheres of influence, and national aspirations

.F1General
.F2International boundaries
.F3Sovereignty. Class here works on occupation zones, occupied territories, territorial waters, etc.
.F33Colonial possessions
.F35Territorial expansion
.F37Flags. Military colors
.F5International relations. Class here works on treaty enforcements, international cooperation (League of Nations, United Nations, Atlantic Pact, Marshall Plan, etc.
.F55Diplomatic and consular service. Class here works on location of embassies, legations, consulates, etc.
.F7Administrative and political divisions. Class here works on political subdivisions, minor civil divisions of a political jurisdiction, congressional districts, and election districts. For courts and judicial divisions, see .F85
.F8Government
.F81Forms of government. Class here works on the distribution of governing systems within a given area. Departments, agencies, bureaus, commissions see .F7 or appropriate topical subdivision.
.F85Laws and law enforcement. Class here works on the location of courts, judicial divisions, penal institutions, legal societies, etc.
.F86Concentration camps. Detention centers, etc.
.F9Political campaigns. Election results. Votes in legislature. Political results

G - Economic Geography

For works on the economic geography of the specialized fields of mines and minerals, agriculture, forests and forestry, fisheries, manufactures and processing, technology, engineering, public works, transportation and communication, and commerce and trade see subdivisions .H through .Q

.G1General. Economic conditions
.G15Economic planning. Cf. .G45, Planning
.G16Economic cycles. Business cycles
.G17Economic assistance (Domestic). For international economic assistance, see .F5
.G2Economic regions. Economic spheres of influence
.G3Natural resources. Conservation (General). Cf. .D4, Wildlife conservation and reserves. Cf. .J4, Soil conservation. Cf. .K3, Forest conservation
.G4Land. Land use. Land capabilities and classification
.G44Zoning
.G45Planning. Cf. .G15, Economic planning
.G455Urban renewal
.G46Cadastral maps. Land ownership. Real property
.G465Land grants
.G47Real property tax. Tax assessment. For income tax, see .E74
.G475Insurance. Fire protection. Class here works showing data specifically useful in determining fire and other property rates, etc.
.G5Public lands
.G52Parks and monuments. Class here works on cultural and historic monuments, parks, zoos, etc. Individual parks are classed as regions. Cf. .D5, Wildlife conservation and reserves. Cf. K1, Forests
.G54Cemeteris
.G6Ethnic reservations
.G7Business and professional organizations
.G8Labor. Class here works on the distribution of the labor force or individual skills, labor relations, employment, strikes, unions, etc.

H - Mines and Mineral Resources

Including mineral rights and leases. For "Rock hound guides," see .E63

.H1General
.H2Metallic group
.H5Nonmetallic group. Including works on hydrocarbons (General), e.g. coal and petroleum
.H8Petroleum and natural gas
.H9Coal. Lignite. Peat

J - Agriculture

.J1 General. Agricultural regions

.J1General. Agricultural regions
.J15Agricultural economics. Economic aspects of agriculture
.J2Systems of agriculture. Agricultural methods. Farming techniques
.J3Soils. Soil classification. Soil capability and utilization. Cf. .N26 Soil mechanics
.J4Soil conservation. Reclamation. Irrigation. Erosion. Cf. .C3, Hydrology. Cf. .G4, Conservation (General). Cf. .N22, Flood control
.J48Fertilizers
.J5Animal husbandry. Livestock
.J6Crops
.J61Cereals
.J67Forage crops. Legumes
.J7Vegetables
.J73Fruits. Nuts
.J77Sugar and starch. Class here works on the distribution of crops specifically cultivated for the production of sugar and starch
.J8Industrial agricultural products
.J82Cordage and textile fibers Including cotton, flax, hemp, etc.
.J84Rubber, gum, and resin plants
.J9Other plants
.J912Beverage plants. Including coffee, tea, etc.
.J92Medicinal plants
.J93Spices. Condiments
.J94Tobacco
.J95Floriculture. Nurseries

K - Forests and Forestry

.K1General
.K2Distribution of forest areas and forest types. Class individual forests as regions
.K3Conservation. Reforestation. Afforestation. Cf. .G1 .G3, Conservation (General)
.K4Silviculture. Tree farms
.K5Agents of forest destruction. Forest fires
.K6Lumbering. Exploitation. Cf. .M4, Wood processing and manufacture

L - Aquatic Biological Resources

Class here works on the economic aspects of aquatic life, including aquatic vegetation, aquaculture, and pelagic mammals

.L1General. For hunting or fishing as a recreational activity, see .E63. Cf. .D1-.D5, Plant and animal distribution
.L2Fishing and fisheries. Fish hatcheries. Sea animal products
.L4Aquatic vegetation. Aquaculture
.L5Pelagic mammals. Sealing. Whaling

M - Manufacturing and Processing. Service Industries

.M1General
.M2Mineral processing and manufacture
.M3Chemical processing and manufacture
.M4Wood processing and manufacture
.M5Paper processing and manufacture
.M6Fiber, textile, and hide processing and manufacture
.M8Food and beverage processing and manufacture
.M9Transport equipment manufacture
.M95Service industries

N - Technology. Engineering. Public works

.N1General. Including inventions
.N18Engineering
.N2Hydraulic engineering. Dams. Class individual dams as geographic features
.N22Flood control
.N23Civil engineering. Building and construction. Building materials
.N24Engineering geology. Class here works showing distribution of geologic characteristics of an area as they relate to capabilities for, or limitation on, construction activity
.N26Soil mechanics. Soil Engineering. Class here works showing the distribution of soil characteristics as they relate to capabilities for, or limitations on, construction activity
.N3Power
.N32Steam. Geothermal steam sources. Thermoelectric power generation
.N33Water power. Hydroelectric power generation
.N34Wind power. Aeroelectric power generation
.N35Nuclear power. Magnetohydrodynamics. Cf. .C92, Radioactivity
.N36Solar power
.N39Utilities
.N4Electric utilities. Service areas. Power lines
.N42Gas utilities
.N44Water utilities. Water storage, distribution, and purification plants. Cf. .C3, Hydrology
.N46Sewerage. Waste disposal
.N85Pollution and pollution control
.N852Air pollution
.N854Pollution of land. Including soil pollution, despoliation of the land by billboards and by the accumulation of refuse such as abandoned motor vehicles, etc.
.N856Water pollution
.N858Noise pollution

P - Transportation and Communication

.P1General
.P15Distances
.P18Trafficability. Traffic feasibility surveys
.P2Roads. For soil characteristics affecting road construction see .N26
.P21Traffic surveys
.P22Bus routes. Truck routes
.P23Traffic and parking regulations
.P24Bridges and tunnels
.P25Trails (Historic). Class individual trails as geographic features. For scenic and recreational trails, see .E63
.P3Railroads
.P33Urban and interurban railroads. Including elevated railroads, street railways, trams, subways, etc.
.P4Pipelines
.P5Water transportation. Nautical charts. Pilot charts. Class individual canals, lakes, etc. as geographic features
.P53Inland waterways. Class here works on navigable lakes, rivers, canals, and protected inshore channels
.P54Ocean routes. Shipping lines. Load line charts
.P55Ports and port facilities
.P57Wreck charts. Cf. .E75, Treasure troves
.P58Electronic navigation charts. Class here Consol, Decca, Loran, and other hyperbolic navigation charts. For regular chart series with electronic lattice overprints, see .P5 and .P6
.P6Air transportation. Aeronautical charts
.P61Airports, landing fields, etc.
.P62Air routes
.P7Space transportation
.P75Satellite tracks, etc.
.P78Other transportation systems. Including conveyor belts, cable ways
.P8Postal service. Postal zones. Zip codes
.P9Communications
.P92Telegraph
.P93Submarine cables
.P94Telephone. Area codes
.P95Radio
.P96Television
.P97Dissemination of information. The press. Printing. Propaganda. Public opinion

Q - Commerce and Trade. Finance

.Q1General
.Q2Business statistics
.Q3Movement of commodities. Class here works on trade routes, caravan routes, etc. For maps and atlases which emphasize the carrier and show specific routes, see .P1-.P97. Cf. .Q5, Tariffs and other trade barriers
.Q4Marketing
.Q42Trade centers and trading areas
.Q44Shopping centers. Shopping malls
.Q46Retail sales outlets
.Q48Fairs, exhibitions, etc. Class individual fairs and exhibitions as regions, e.g. New York World’s Fair, and Transpo '72
.Q5Tariffs and other trade barriers
.Q8Finance. Class here works on coins and currencies, foreign exchange credit, special types of financial institutions, individual financial firms, etc.

R - Military and Naval Geography

Class here works on the administration and general operation of peacetime military and naval forces .

For maps and atlases that portray historical events of a military nature, see .S

.R1General
.R2Military and naval districts and establishments. Troop disposition
.R22Air Force
.R24Army
.R26Coast Guard
.R28Navy
.R282Marine Corps
.R3Military operations. Strategy and tactics. War games
.R4Defenses. Fortifications
.R5Logistics. Class here works on military support systems, munitions, lines of communication, etc.
.R6Civil defense

S - Historical Geography

Class here maps and atlases that portray specific historical events, including disposition of troops, battle lines, or a series of events.

A map or atlas, either contemporary or reconstructed, which gives only general geographical information about an area at the time of a given event or series of events is treated without subject subdivision.

A chronological subdivision for an area, based on its own history, is to be preferred to any universal arrangement except that the following Cutter numbers are to remain constant throughout the schedule.

For examples of such arrangements, see G3201.S World history, and G3701.S United States history.

.S1General
.S12Discovery and exploration
.S65World War I
.S7World War II