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Occupation of Vera Cruz: Topics in Chronicling America

In 1914, US forces occupied the Mexican port of Vera Cruz. This guide provides access to materials related to “Occupation of Vera Cruz” in the Chronicling America digital collection of historic newspapers.


"President Wilson asks Congress for power to invade Mexico." April 20, 1914. Harrisburg Telegraph (Harrisburg, PA), Image 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

President Wilson responds swiftly to Mexican insult. American civilians flee violence in Mexico, as Marines land in Vera Cruz and the Navy blockades Mexican ports. The nation prepares for full-scale war. Read more about it!

The information in this guide focuses on primary source materials found in the digitized historic newspapers from the digital collection Chronicling America.

The timeline below highlights important dates related to this topic and a section of this guide provides some suggested search strategies for further research in the collection.


April 9, 1914 Small dispatchment of Marines mistakenly arrested; Huerta apologizes but will not salute American flag.
April 15, 1914 President Wilson mobilizes fleet to blockade Mexican ports.
April 20, 1914 President Wilson announces his intention to seize the ports.
April 21, 1914 US forces occupy the Mexican port of Vera Cruz.
April 22, 1914 Congress empowers President Wilson to seek reparations.
April 22, 1914 Mexican General Gustavo Maas flees Vera Cruz; many officers follow suit.
April, 24, 1914 State Department evacuates the embassy in Mexico City and all consulates in Mexico.
April 25, 1914 Border states fear Mexican retaliation; request arms and troops from the federal government.
April 25, 1914 Congress appropriates $500,000 to assist Americans fleeing violence in Mexico.
November 23, 1914 Final American forces withdraw from Vera Cruz.