Francisco "Pancho" Villa is wanted "dead or alive" by American troops after Villa's army of bandits murder 16 Americans in a raid on Columbus, New Mexico, on March 10, 1916. Known at first as a "Robin Hood in Mexico," the American press later portrays Villa as a brutal villain "thirsting for blood" as war rages along the Mexican border. At the end of the Mexican Revolution, after his army dwindles, Villa negotiates an amnesty with the Mexican government and retires his military pursuits in 1920, only to be assassinated in an ambush three years later in 1923. Read more about it!
The information in this guide focuses on primary source materials found in the digitized historic newspapers from the digital collection Chronicling America.
The timeline below highlights important dates related to this topic, and a section of this guide provides some suggested search strategies for further research in the collection.
|June 5, 1878||Born Jose Doroteo Arango Arambula in San Juan del Rio, Durango, Mexico.|
|1910||Pancho Villa joins Francisco Madero against dictator Porfirio Diaz.|
|1913||When Madero is overthrown, Villa joins with Emiliano Zapata and Venustiano Carranza to oppose the dictatorship of Huerta. Forms own army, the Division del Norte. Serves as provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua.|
|1914||Villa splits with Carranza, who has assumed the presidency.|
|March 9, 1916||Raid on Columbus, NM, allegedly initiated by Pancho Villa in retaliation of the change in US allegiance from him to Carranza.|
|1916-1917||“Punitive expedition” lead by Brigadier General Pershing is sent into Mexico with 3,000 US troops. Villa eludes capture. Pershing is called back when the US enters WWI.|
|1920||Villa is granted amnesty and retires to a ranch in northern Mexico.|
|June 20, 1923||Villa assassinated in Parral, Chihuahua.|