The 1904 kidnapping of Ion Perdicaris demonstrated President Theodore Roosevelt's display and use of force. This guide provides access to materials related to the "Perdicaris Affair" in the Chronicling America digital collection of historic newspapers.
Chronicling America is a searchable digital collection of historic newspaper pages from 1777-1963 sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress.
Included in the website is the Directory of US Newspapers in American Libraries, a searchable index to newspapers published in the United States since 1690, which helps researchers identify what titles exist for a specific place and time, and how to access them.
Ion Perdicaris, an American businessman, is kidnapped on May 18, 1904 in Tangier, Morocco and held for ransom. President Theodore Roosevelt demands that the Moroccan government obtain Perdicaris' release and orders Navy ships to Morocco. Perdicaris is eventually released unharmed, and the incident is now often remembered for the statement made by US Secretary of State John Hay, "Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead." Read more about it!
The information in this guide focuses on primary source materials found in the digitized historic newspapers from the digital collection Chronicling America.
The timeline below highlights important dates related to this topic and a section of this guide provides some suggested search strategies for further research in the collection.
May 18, 1904
Ion Perdicaris, a Greek-American citizen, and his stepson are kidnapped by a Moroccan brigand, Ahmed ibn-Muhammed Raisuli, in Tangier, Morocco. Raisuli demands ransom payments and political influence in exchange for Perdicaris’ safe return.
May 19, 1904
President Roosevelt orders a naval squadron to Morocco.
May 31, 1904
France offers her assistance in resolving the affair.
June 22, 1904
U.S. Secretary of State John Hay dispatches an ultimatum to the Moroccan sultan demanding “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead.”
June 24, 1904
Raisuli’s demands are met, and Perdicaris is released.