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Directory of U.S. Newspapers in American Libraries: A Guide for Researchers



The U.S. Newspaper Program was successfully completed in 2011. The following information is presented for archival and research purposes relating to the creation of the Directory of U.S. Newspapers in American Libraries and subsequent newspaper programs like the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP). For current NDNP information, view the Library of Congress' National Digital Newspaper Program website.

A target is a graphic or textual image (generally produced on a sheet of paper or cardstock) containing bibliographic and technical data about the materials being microfilmed as well as some of the conditions affecting the filming process. Targets enhance the reader's understanding of the contents of the film while at the same time indicating who was responsible for creating the film, how it was produced, what titles are included on the reel, and whether there are imperfection in the original text.

Determining which targets to include and what information to be contained within them is made during the physical preparation stage. The collator should determine the number and type of targets needed for each volume.

Some of the targets are standard in that they do not require decision-making or preparation on the part of the collator (START, END OF REEL/PLEASE REWIND). Other targets must be custom-produced since they contain information specific to the volume, title, reel, project, and/or institution.

The USNP Projects at Virginia, Michigan and California have graciously allowed us the use of several of their targets for reproduction on this website. We hope that these targets will be helpful in deciding which targets are needed for your projects.

Target Type of Production Examples
START Standard California (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Master Negative Custom California (PDF)
Project ID Project-Specific California (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Copyright Project-Specific California (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Title Custom California (PDF), Virginia (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Bib Record Custom California (PDF), California (PDF), California (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Reel Contents Custom California (PDF), Virginia (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
Optional Standard
Illumination Standard
Technical Standard
Volume Standard California (PDF), Virginia (PDF)
List of Irregularities Custom California (PDF)
TEXT is Filmed Here
In-Text Targets Standard
Continuation Standard Michigan (PDF)
END Standard Michigan (PDF)