The Library of Congress holds thousands of collection materials about and from Ecuador. Curated by librarians in the Hispanic Reading Room, this guide is part of a series of Country Guides that provide quick references for countries and regions from the Luso-Hispanic world. The Hispanic Reading Room is the Library’s portal to the Caribbean, Latin America, Spain and Portugal; the indigenous cultures of those areas; and peoples throughout the world historically influenced by Luso-Hispanic heritage, including Latinos in the U.S. This guide offers links to diverse resources on Ecuador from across the Library including digitized primary sources, selected books and periodicals, online databases, and tips for searching. For specific questions or assistance using the Library’s resources, use the Ask a Librarian service to contact a reference librarian.
Official Name: Republic of Ecuador
Date of Independence: August 10, 1809
Head of State/Government: President Lenin Moreno Garces
Population: 16,904,867 million people: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, White 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, Mulatto 1.9%, Black 1%
Languages: Spanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2% (2010 est.)
States: Ecuador is divided into four geographic regions: La Costa ("the coast") composed of Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos, Manabí, El Oro, and Santa Elena; La Sierra ("the highlands") consists of Azuay, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Imbabura, Loja, Pichincha, and Tungurahua; La Amazonía or El Oriente ("the east") consists of Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, and Zamora-Chinchipe; and La Región Insular (“insular region”) comprising the Galápagos Islands.