Peck was a federal district court judge in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1825, Peck issued an opinion concerning a land grant under Spanish law. The ruling was criticized by Luke Lawless, the attorney who represented the losing side. After Peck cited Lawless for contempt of court, Lawless petitioned for Peck’s impeachment. The impeachment resolution was first introduced in 1826; after two rejections, a resolution was approved in 1830. Peck was acquitted of all charges by the Senate in January 1831.