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The Federalist Papers: Primary Documents in American History

Full Text of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist, commonly referred to as the Federalist Papers, is a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison between October 1787 and May 1788. The essays were published anonymously, under the pen name "Publius," in various New York state newspapers of the time.

The Federalist Papers were written and published to urge New Yorkers to ratify the proposed United States Constitution, which was drafted in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. In lobbying for adoption of the Constitution over the existing Articles of Confederation, the essays explain particular provisions of the Constitution in detail. For this reason, and because Hamilton and Madison were each members of the Constitutional Convention, the Federalist Papers are often used today to help interpret the intentions of those drafting the Constitution.

The Federalist Papers were published primarily in two New York state newspapers: The New York Packet and The Independent Journal. They were reprinted in other newspapers in New York state and in several cities in other states. A bound edition, with revisions and corrections by Hamilton, was published in 1788 by printers J. and A. McLean. An edition published by printer Jacob Gideon in 1818, with revisions and corrections by Madison, was the first to identify each essay by its author's name. Because of its publishing history, the assignment of authorship, numbering, and exact wording may vary with different editions of The Federalist.

The electronic text of The Federalist used here was compiled for Project Gutenberg by scholars who drew on many available versions of the papers.

One printed edition of the text is The Federalist, edited by Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1961). Cooke's introduction provides background information on the printing history of The Federalist; the information provided above comes in part from his work.

This web-friendly presentation of the original text of the Federalist Papers (also known as The Federalist) was obtained from the e-text archives of Project Gutenberg. Any irregularities with regard to grammar, syntax, spelling, or punctuation are as they exist in the original e-text archives.

Table of Contents

No. Title Author Publication Date
1. General Introduction Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
2. Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Jay For the Independent Journal --
3. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Jay For the Independent Journal --
4. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Jay For the Independent Journal --
5. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence Jay For the Independent Journal --
6. Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
7. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
8. The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, November 20, 1787
9. The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
10. The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Madison Frm the New York Packet Friday, November 27, 1787
11. The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy Hamilton For the Independent Journal  --
12. The Utility of the Union in Respect to Revenue Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, November 27, 1787
13. Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
14. Objections to the Proposed Constitution from Extent of Territory Answered Madison From the New York Packet Friday, November 30, 1787
15.  The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
16. The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, December 4, 1787
17.  The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
18. The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton and Madison For the Independent Journal --
19. The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton and Madison For the Independent Journal --
20. The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Hamilton and Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, December 11, 1787
21. Other Defects of the Present Confederation Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
22. The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, December 14, 1787
23. The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, December 17, 1787
24. The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
25. The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, December 21, 1787
26. The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
27. The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, December 25, 1787
28.  The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
29. Concerning the Militia Hamilton From the Daily Advertiser Thursday, January 10, 1788
30. Concerning the General Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, December 28, 1787
31. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 1, 1788
32. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton From the Daily Advertiser Thursday, January 3, 1788
33. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton From the Daily Advertiser Thursday, January 3, 1788
34. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, January 4, 1788
35. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
36. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 8, 1788
37. Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government Madison From the Daily Advertiser Friday, January 11, 1788
38.  Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 15, 1788
39.  Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles Madison For the Independent Journal --
40. The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained Madison From the New York Packet Friday, January 18, 1788
41. General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution Madison For the Independent Journal --
42. The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 22, 1788
43. The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered Madison For the Independent Journal --
44. Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States Madison From the New York Packet Friday, January 25, 1788
45. The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered Madison For the Independent Journal --
46.  The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 29, 1788
47. The Particular Structure of the New Government and Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts Madison From the New York Packet Friday, February 1, 1788
48. These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other Madison From the New York Packet Friday, February 1, 1788
49. Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 5, 1788
50. Periodic Appeals to the People Considered Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 5, 1788
51. The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Friday, February 8, 1788
52.  The House of Representatives Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Friday, February 8, 1788
53. The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 12, 1788
54. The Apportionment of Members Among States Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 12, 1788
55.  The Total Number of the House of Representatives Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Friday, February 15, 1788
56. The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 19, 1788
57. The Alleged Tendency of the Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation  Hamilton or Madison From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 19, 1788
58. Objection that the Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered Madison -- --
59. Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, February 22, 1788
60. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 26, 1788
61. The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, February 26, 1788
62.  The Senate Hamilton or Madison For the Independent Journal --
63. The Senate Continued Hamilton or Madison For the Independent Journal --
64. The Powers of the Senate Jay From the New York Packet Friday, March 7, 1788
65. The Powers of the Senate Continued Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 7, 1788
66.  Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 11, 1788
67.  The Executive Department  Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 11, 1788
68. The Mode of Electing the President Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 14, 1788
69.  The Real Character of the Executive Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 14, 1788
70.  The Executive Department Further Considered  Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 14, 1788
71. The Duration in Office of the Executive Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 18, 1788
72.  The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 21, 1788
73.  The Provision for Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, March 21, 1788
74.  The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, March 25, 1788
75. The Treaty Making Power of the Executive Hamilton For the Independent Journal --
76. The Appointing Power of the Executive Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, April 1, 1788
77. The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, April 4, 1788
78. The Judiciary Department Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
79. The Judiciary Continued Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
80. The Powers of the Judiciary Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
81. The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of Judicial Authority Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
82. The Judiciary Continued Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
83. The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
84. Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
85. Concluding Remarks Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --