The United States government is an excellent source of information on industries. Much of it is free to use though there are often limits in terms of search functionality and output.
The U.S. Census Bureau is one of the biggest government sources of business information but there are others. Below are some of the major resources produced by that agency that can be used for industry research. However, there are many other agencies which produce industry-related information specific to certain industries. Below are a few examples that we have provided more details to:
Beyond those above, there are other agencies also produce data to mention.
NOTE: Also, look at the agency's annual report for information important to the the industry particularly about how it relates to regulatory oversight External and issues. It can include data as well as contracts for major projects and other good industry numbers and the information can be quite detailed. Often it can be a good place to find information about particular events like natural disasters or large economic/industry events that happened that year, that the agency was interested in or had some regulatory oversight over. If you are looking to understand older government data gathering and publishing in terms of doing industry or market research, in 1927 the Domestic Commerce Series from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce External published "Market Research Agencies" that may provide some
The agency website it a good source but often it can be found in the HathiTrust and Internet Archive. To understand U.S. government publications see the GPO's Catalog of Government Publications.