The Library of Congress is a research destination for those interested in early LGBTQ+ activism, and is particularly strong in holdings related to the U.S. Homophile movement. The Homophile Movement refers to the local, national and international social-political movement for gay and lesbian rights which emerged following World War II. Many consider the birth of the homophile movement to be sometime around 1950/1951, a date that corresponds to the founding of the Mattachine Society, and then eventually, to ONE Inc., and the Daughters of Bilitis. The only U.S. gay rights organizations to pre-date the Mattachine Society were the short lived Chicago Society for Human Rights, founded by Henry Gerber in 1924 and the Veterans Benevolent Association, founded in New York in 1945.
Before Stonewall, there were by conservative estimates at least 60 homophile or gay rights groups operating. According to NACHO, in 1970 there were 143 "homosexual or gay groups" operating in the United States and Canada. After Stonewall, the number of LGBTQIA+ groups proliferated so rapidly it becomes difficult to keep track. However, just a year after Stonewall, there were upwards of 1500-2000 LGBT+ liberation groups in the United States, and many more internationally.
Some examples of U.S. homophile organizations organizing before Stonewall (Not a comprehensive list):
Conferences, Collectives & Consortium
Homophile activists protest at the the annual Fourth of July (1967-1969) "Reminder Day Picket," held at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After Stonewall, the organizations that planned this annual demonstration turned their attentions to planning the first Pride march in New York City in 1970.
Some examples of homophile organizations outside the U.S. (Not a comprehensive list)
Browse the Library of Congress Online Catalog using subjects or personal names of specific activists to locate additional titles:
The following titles link to fuller bibliographic information in the Library of Congress Online Catalog. Links to additional online content are included when available.