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Russia and its Empire in Eurasia: Cartographic Resources in the Library of Congress


Kalinnikov, I. A., editor. Pi︠a︡tiletniĭ plan novogo stroitel'stva promyshlennosti SSSR : Karta Aziatskoĭ chasti SSSR. 1930. Original map held by National Library of Russia. Digital image available through the Library of Congress website.

The division holds maps depicting industry and industrial activity in Russia and the former Soviet Union. Given the emphasis on industrial development during the five-year plans of the 1920s-30s, the maps from that era tend to indicate the levels of industrial achievement in general, as well as those in specific industries. An example appears in the illustration at right of an original, held by the National Library of Russia, but made available for research on the Library's website. It promotes the successful development of new industries in Asiatic Russia as a result of the first five-year plan.

Those originals in the Library's collections that are cataloged can be identified on the Library of Congress online catalog by a variety of search terms, which can include a type of industry. Examples include "Energy industries Russia Federation maps" or "Chemical industry Former Soviet republics maps" or "Petroleum industry and trade Russia Federation maps" or "Automobile industry and trade Russia Federation maps" and so forth. Those maps that are ucataloged are described below.

Single Maps

The division holds fifty-four uncataloged maps depicting industry in Russia and the former Soviet Union. They range in date from 1933 to 1973, and are arranged chronologically. Three are described below as examples.


Karta Kapital'nogo Stroitel'stva po Piatiletnemy Plana, 1928-29 -- 1932-33: novye fabriki, zavody, elektrostantsii, shakhty, sovkhozy, zhel.-dor. linii, sooruzhaemye v techenie piatiletia. (Moskva: Izdanie gazety "Ekonomicheskaia Zhizn," 1933). Offset lithograph, colored. Scales vary. Filed under USSR -- Industry -- 1933 -- 1:5,000,000 -- "Ekonomicheskaia Zhizn"

Two maps on one sheet: both show capital construction by way of the Five-Year Plan, one in European Russia (1:3,000,000) and the other in Asiatic Russia (1:10,400,000). Maps depict the locations of capital construction projects throughout the Soviet Union for the periods 1928-29 -- 1932-33. Thirty-four industries are identified, i.e. electrification, oil, mining, metallurgy, automobile, railroad, forestry, chemical, machine works, etc. Includes legend indexing industries by symbols. Also shows railroad lines, oil lines, collective farms, administrative divisions at the oblast level, and place names. Map published by the journal Ekonomicheskaia Zhizn.

Industrial'noe Razvitie SSSR za Gody Predvoennykh Piatiletok (1928-1940gg.) (Moscow: GUGK, 1960). Offset lithograph, colored. Scale 1:5,000,000. Filed under USSR -- Industry -- "Industrial Development 1928-1940" -- 1913-28-40 -- 1:5,000,000 -- GUGK, and by unverified call number G7001 .M1 1940 .R81

Two maps, one showing Russian industry in 1913 and the other Russian industry in 1940, thereby comparing Russia's industrial development by way of the Five-Year Plans. The 1913 map shows three scales of industry, seven categories of dominant industries, eight mining and resource industries, thermal energy plants, areas of the greatest penetration of foreign capital and industrial investment, railroads, transport canals, and the borders of the Russian Empire in 1913. The 1940 map, by contrast, shows four scales of industry, seven categories of dominant industries, fifteen mining and resource industries, hydroelectric and thermal energy plants, railroads built before the October Revolution and traditional and electric railroads built after it, maritime routes established between 1932-35, transport canals built before and after the October Revolution, and Soviet borders in 1939 and 1940. Map includes four graphs contrasting growth in stages since 1913 in four main areas: industrial to agricultural employment, Soviet industrialization to that in capitalist countries, Russia's economic base before both World Wars, and exports over imports in several industries. Both maps include legends.

Glavnye Tsentry Chernoi i Tsvetnoi Metallurgii SSR. Dlia Shrednei shkoly. (Moscow: GUGK, 1963). Offset lithograph, colored. Scale 1:6,000,000. Filed under USSR -- Industry -- "Iron and Steel" -- 1963 -- 1:6,000,000 -- GUGK, and by unverified call number G7001 .M2 1963 .R8

Soviet middle school map showing main centers of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy in the early 1960s. Map depicts production sites of ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals; deposits of coal, iron ore, manganese, aluminum, nickel, copper, and uranium; copper and aluminum smelting; main areas of gold mining; and main transport directions of coking coal and iron ore. Includes an inset of the Donbas and Trans-Dnieper manufacturing regions. Includes a bar graphs indicating the growth of iron ore mining in stages from 1913 to 1965.

There are sixteen uncataloged maps depicting industry in European Russia for the period from approximately the 1880s up to 1941. They are arranged chronologically. About half depict overall industrial activity, while others focus on a specific industry, i.e. textiles, chemicals, etc. One is described below as an example.


Tazhelaia Industria SSSR Evropeiskaia Chast'. Predpriiatia N.K.T.P. na 1 Ianvaria 1935 g. ([Moscow]: izdanie Vsesoiuznogo Kartograficheskogo Tresta i Gazety "Za Industrializatsiiu," 1935). Chromolithograph. Scale 1:5,000,000. Filed under Russia -- European -- Industry "Heavy Industry U.S.S.R." -- 1935 -- 1:5,000,000 -- Russia Cartographic Trust

Map depicting the major heavy industries and enterprises operating or under construction in European Russia as of January 1, 1935. Map distinguishes large-scale from standard enterprises. It identifies identifies electric power stations; fuel industries; ferrous metallurgical industries, i.e ore and coke; non-ferrous metallurgical industries, i.e gold, copper, led, tin, as well as affiliated extraction, enriching, and alloying industries; machine construction and metal working industries, i.e. energy and electricity transportation, agricultural machinery, etc.; chemical industries, i.e. basic, rubber, and asbestos; non-metallic minerals; and constructions materials, i.e cement, sawmills, etc. Map also depicts coal industry trusts, petroleum pipe lines, water lines, high-voltage networks, iron ore directorates, standard and narrow gauged railways, and new industrial sites and towns. Also identifies cities, towns, and villages; place names; state and republic boundaries; railway lines in operation and under construction; and navigable canals. Map includes legends and text. Map includes seven insets depicting enterprises concentrated in the vicinity of Leningrad, Moscow raion, Moscow, environs of Baku, Urals, environs of Kharkov, and the Don Basin.

The division holds two uncataloged maps depicting industry in Estonia for the years 1938-39.

There are two maps depicting industry in Siberia for the years 1934 and 1955.

There are two uncataloged maps depicting industry in Sakhalin Oblast from 1945.

There is a single uncataloged map depicting resources available for the construction industry in the Moldavian S.S.R. dated 1944, and it is filed under "U.S.S.R. -- Moldova -- Natural Resources -- 1944"

There are four uncataloged maps depicting industry in Ukraine from ca. 1900 to 1965.