The law commonly referred to as "Title IX" is found in sections 901–907 of the Education Amendments of 1972, Pub. L. 92-318, 86 Stat. 235 (PDF). The text of Title IX of the Act begins on page 373 (PDF) of volume 86 of the United States Statutes at Large.
In 1987, Congress passed a significant amendment to Title IX. The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100-259, 102 Stat. 28 (PDF) amended the text of Title IX to state that sex discrimination was prohibited in the programs and activities of any recipient of federal funds. Congress found it necessary to amend Title IX because Supreme Court decisions like Grove City College v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984) (listed in the section United States Supreme Court Cases), had narrowed the application of Title IX. With the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, Congress affirmed that a broad, institution-wide application of Title IX was intended under the law.
For more information about accessing and researching federal statutes, please see:
Regulations applicable to prohibitions against discrimination on the basis of sex:
For more information about researching federal regulations, please see:
The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of the United States Department of Education (DOE) publishes guidance documents, procedures, and other publications that interpret or apply the United States Code, regulations, and case law concerning Title IX. Some guidance is directed toward educators and administrators at educational institutions in the form of "Dear Colleague" letters.
The DOE has numerous webpages of guidance on Title IX and sex discrimination in education on its website:
The Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Educational Opportunities Section plays a significant role in enforcing Title IX with respect to recipients of funding from the Department of Justice. In addition, the Section may intervene in private suits alleging violations of education-related anti-discrimination statutes and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The Section also represents the Department of Education in lawsuits.
The Department of Justice publishes resources on Title IX on its website, including the following:
The following is a selection of United States Supreme Court cases that have interpreted Title IX: