The resources listed below comprise general print materials and websites on U.S. trade with China. For additional resources from the Library's collections go to the Library of Congress (LC) Catalog Searches tab.
The terrain of the world trading system is shifting as countries in Asia, Europe, and North America negotiate new trade agreements. However, none of these talks include both China and the United States, the two biggest economies in the world. In this pathbreaking study, C. Fred Bergsten, Gary Clyde Hufbauer, and Sean Miner argue that China and the United States would benefit substantially from a bilateral free trade and investment accord or from participating together in a regional agreement like the TPP. In the process, they contend, each country would also achieve progress in addressing its internal economic challenges, such as the low saving rate in the United States. Achieving greater trade and investment integration could be accomplished with one comprehensive effort or through step-by-step negotiations over key issues. The authors call on the United States to seek liberalization of China's services sector as vital to securing an agreement, and they explain that such contentious matters as cyberespionage and currency manipulation be handled through parallel negotiations rather than in the agreement itself. This is an important study of the benefits and difficulties of a complex matter that could yield dividends to the two economies and help stabilize the security and well-being of the rest of the world.
Should the United States have relations with a country that offers few protections for workers? Why do U.S. companies do business in China under these conditions? Why do they support the Chinese government's restrictions on free speech if this is anathema to the American way? Could economic engagement push China toward democracy? This anthology interprets these and other relevant questions from conflicting perspectives. Readers will learn about the key ideas and debates regarding trade and labor policy with China. Discussions are grounded in real life events. As China becomes more a part of policy planning for the U.S., it is critical to understand our relationship to labor in this region.
Should the United States be open to commerce with other countries, or should it protect domestic industries from foreign competition? This question has been the source of bitter political conflict throughout American history. Such conflict was inevitable, James Madison argued in The Federalist Papers, because trade policy involves clashing economic interests. The struggle between the winners and losers from trade has always been fierce because dollars and jobs are at stake: depending on what policy is chosen, some industries, farmers, and workers will prosper, while others will suffer. Douglas A. Irwin's Clashing over Commerce is the most authoritative and comprehensive history of US trade policy to date, offering a clear picture of the various economic and political forces that have shaped it. From the start, trade policy divided the nation--first when Thomas Jefferson declared an embargo on all foreign trade and then when South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union over excessive taxes on imports. The Civil War saw a shift toward protectionism, which then came under constant political attack. Then, controversy over the Smoot-Hawley tariff during the Great Depression led to a policy shift toward freer trade, involving trade agreements that eventually produced the World Trade Organization. Irwin makes sense of this turbulent history by showing how different economic interests tend to be grouped geographically, meaning that every proposed policy change found ready champions and opponents in Congress. As the Trump administration considers making major changes to US trade policy, Irwin's sweeping historical perspective helps illuminate the current debate. Deeply researched and rich with insight and detail, Clashing over Commerce provides valuable and enduring insights into US trade policy past and present.
In the imaginations of early Americans, the Middle Kingdom was the wealthiest empire in the world. Its geographical distance did not deter commercial aspirations--rather, it inspired them. Starting in the late eighteenth century, merchants from New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Salem, Newport, and elsewhere cast speculative lines to China. The resulting fortunes shaped the cultural foundation of the early republic and funded westward frontier expansion. In The New Middle Kingdom, Kendall A. Johnson argues that--for the merchant princes who speculated in the global Far East, as well as the missionaries and diplomats who followed them--Manifest Destiny spurred more than the coalescence of the fractious regions into the continental Far West. It also promised a golden gateway to the Pacific Ocean through which the nation would realize its historical destiny as the world's new Middle Kingdom of commerce. Examining the influential accounts of westerners at the center of early US cultural development abroad, Johnson conceives a romance of free trade with China as a quest narrative of national accomplishment in a global marketplace. Drawing from a richly descriptive cross-cultural archive, the book presents key moments in early relations among the twenty-first century's superpowers through memoirs, biographies, epistolary journals, magazines, book reviews, fiction and poetry by Melville, Twain, Whitman, and others, travel narratives, and treaties, as well as maps and engraved illustrations. Paying close attention to figurative language, generic forms, and the social dynamics of print cultural production and circulation, Johnson shows how authors, editors, and printers appealed to multiple overlapping audiences in China, in the United States, and throughout the world. Spanning a full century, from the post-Revolutionary War era to the Gilded Age, The New Middle Kingdom is a vivid look at the Far East through Western eyes, one that highlights the importance of China in antebellum US culture.
Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies - everything from iPhones and medical technologies, to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines.While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply. Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" halted exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tensionbetween the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies. Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of economic statecraft, and must be regarded as a part of the larger discourse of global power relations. Importantly, this book also argues that thefailure of political actors in the United States and Europe to pass policy to address future supply, or the scientific and business communities to devise sustainable rare earth production outside of China, points to future resource competition. Focusing on China's monopoly over the rare earthindustry, this book examines the impacts of growing worldwide resource competition and the complexities policymakers face as they develop strategies and responses in an increasingly globalized world.
Lovett (Tulane Law School), Eckes (a former commissioner of the U.S. International Commission during the Reagan and Bush I administrations), and Brinkman (international economics, Portland State U.) evaluate the evolution of U.S. trade policy, focusing on the period from the establishment of the Gen
Economic and trade reforms begun in 1979 have helped transform China into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. China's economic growth and trade liberalisation, including comprehensive trade commitments made upon entering the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, have led to a sharp expansion in U.S.-China commercial ties. Yet, bilateral trade relations have become increasingly strained in recent years over a number of issues, including a large and growing U.S. trade deficit with China, resistance by China to appreciate its currency to market levels, China's mixed record on implementing its WTO obligations, infringement of U.S. intellectual property (including through cyber espionage), and numerous Chinese industrial policies that appear to impose new restrictions on foreign firms or provide unfair advantages to domestic Chinese firms (such as subsidies). This book provides an overview of U.S.-China commercial relations, including major trade disputes.
This book examines the state of China's trade agreements with various regions of the world and the strategy and rationale behind them. In its campaign to sign free trade agreements, China is slowly moving from small, developing countries to more advanced economies. However, China's approach to preferential trade is inconsistent and not fully understood. This book outlines China's strategy and key factors influencing its policy in the pursuit of free trade agreements and offers considerations for the U.S. government. Moreover, the book provides an overview of U.S.-China commercial relations, including major trade disputes, and examines China's recent emergence as a major agricultural importer and its implications for global markets.
The Sino-US trade accord signed in November 1999 in Beijing set a milestone for China's protracted journey towards becoming a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). China hailed it as a win-win deal. The trade accord showed the commitment of the Chinese government to further transform China into a market economy. The liberalisation measures set forth in the accord may bring about the rise of the private enterprises and further expansion of the services markets, from banking to professional services. However, the implementation of the reform represents a challenge to the Chinese government in managing the potential surge in urban and rural unemployment and the stability of the banking sector. This paper analyses the details of the Sino-US trade accord and its implications for the Chinese economy.
...Based generally on publicly available information, this book reviews the broad range of commitments and obligations assumed by China as part of its accession to the WTO, including such areas as tariff reductions, agriculture, subsidies, intellectual property, services, state-owned and state-invested enterprises, trading rights, transparency, and judicial review. The book also examines the extent of China's initial compliance with its WTO commitments and obligations, summarizes issues of concern that have surfaced in the initial months of China's WTO membership, and looks at areas where it will be important to monitor China's compliance in the coming years. In addition, the book addresses how China's WTO accession may affect China's relations with the United States, both commercial relations and with respect to security interests.
This is a private, nonpartisan nonprofit institution that provides authoritative research and analysis on international economic policy. Trade & Investment External is one of the topics that gets comprehensive coverage. One of the notable reports covers the timeline of the current administration's trade war with China External.
"NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to conducting economic research and to disseminating research findings among academics, public policy makers, and business professionals. NBER-affiliated researchers study a wide range of topics and they employ many different methods in their work. Key focus areas include developing new statistical measurements, estimating quantitative models of economic behavior, and analyzing the effects of public policies."
There is a claim that China is trading unfairly. The claim is based on interpreting China’s WTO obligations. There is difference of opinion on its obligations, thus the original document--the WTO accession protocol--is excellent source material.
USCBC is a private, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that provides information, advisory, advocacy, and program services to American companies that do business with China. The site includes publications and research products most of which are available to members only but some content is available to the general public.
WTO is the global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. Its website offers access to official documents, publications, statistics, and research papers and reports.
"BEA is part of the Commerce Department's Economics and Statistics Administration. BEA produces economic accounts statistics that enable government and business decision-makers, researchers, and the American public to follow and understand the performance of the Nation's economy."
This is the official website for U.S. federal legislative information that covers legislation going back to 1973. Legislative actions on trade with China can be found by keyword search. The site allows various ways to filter search results: by Congress, legislation types and status, sponsors, etc.
This is a joint product of the International Trade Administration and 19 other federal agencies that was created to serve as a one-stop shop for tools, assistance, and expert knowledge for companies seeking to export their goods and services internationally.
ITA's goals are to help U.S. companies by promoting trade and investment, strengthening industry competitiveness, and ensuring fair trade.The ITA website provides information on a variety of trade topics and services as well as access to trade statistics and publications.
"USTR is responsible for developing and coordinating U.S. international trade, commodity, and direct investment policy, and overseeing negotiations with other countries." The website provides access to the U.S. trade agreements with other countries, trade information and data on each country and region the U.S. trades with, and covers trade issues by industry.
U.S. Government Accountability Office provides independent and nonpartisan research to Congress. This page addresses the issue of U.S.-China Economic and Military Relations and provides access to GAO reports on the matter.
U.S. Commercial Service in China provides assistance to American businesses exporting goods and services to China. The website offers access to country commercial guide to China with information on doing business in China, the Chinese industries, trade leads and more.
"USITC is is an independent, quasijudicial federal agency with broad investigative responsibilities on matters of trade." Provides access to economic and industry reports, publications, data tools and more.
"The U.S. Trade and Development Agency helps companies create U.S. jobs through the export of U.S. goods and services for priority development projects in emerging economies." The site includes the agency reports and information on programs by regions and sectors.
CIETAC, one of the major permanent arbitration institutions in the world, resolves economic and trade disputes by means of arbitration. The website provides information on arbitration process, rules and regulations, as well as related data and research.
The website provides information related to the policies and activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, transcripts of press conferences, and information on relations with the countries and regions of the world.
The canned searches linked below will browse the Library of Congress Online Catalog for more materials on the topic of U.S. trade with China using authorized subject headings.