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World of 1898: International Perspectives on the Spanish American War

Grito de Lares

Several hundred women and men revolted against Spain for Puerto Rican independence on September 23, 1868. The most important figures in the uprising were Manuel Rojas, Mathias Bruckman, Joaquín Parilla, and Francisco Ramírez. The main leader was Ramón Betances but he was not given permission to enter the island. The insurrection failed because the population was apathetic, the rebels lacked adequate training and equipment, and the fact that the Spanish authorities knew of the rebels' plans in advance. Lola Rodríguez de Tió, a Puerto Rican writer, wrote a poem that became the lyrics to La Borinqueña, a revolutionary song and the rebel anthem.