Skip to Main Content

World of 1898: International Perspectives on the Spanish American War

Philippine Perspective

Photographic history of the Spanish-American War, Map IV.

The Philippines too was beginning to grow restive with Spanish rule. José Rizal, a member of a wealthy mestizo family, resented that his upper mobility was limited by Spanish insistence on promoting only "pure-blooded" Spaniards. He began his political career at the University of Madrid in 1882 where he became the leader of Filipino students there. For the next ten years he traveled in Europe and wrote several novels considered seditious by Filipino and Church authorities. He returned to Manila in 1892 and founded the Liga Filipina, a political group dedicated to peaceful change. He was rapidly exiled to Mindanao. During his absence, Andrés Bonifacio founded Katipunan, dedicated to the violent overthrow of Spanish rule. On August 26, 1896, after learning that the Katipunan had been betrayed, Bonifacio issued the Grito de Balintawak, a call for Filipinos to revolt. Bonifacio was succeeded as head of the Philippine revolution by Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, who had his predecessor arrested and executed on May 10, 1897. Aguinaldo negotiated a deal with the Spaniards who exiled him to Hong Kong with 400,000 pesos that he subsequently used to buy weapons to resume the fight.

Photo Gallery of Philippine Insurgents

Selected Resources on The Philippines during the Spanish-American War

Selected Bibliography of Philippine Nationalists

The following selection of books provide the perspective of Philippine nationalists during the war. Each title links to fuller bibliographic information in the Library of Congress Online Catalog. Links to additional online content are included when available.

Listing of selected manuscript collections concerning the Philippine Islands Theater

This is one of four separate listings of Manuscript Division collections related to the Spanish-American War of 1898: "Spanish-American War of 1898-General", "Spanish-American War of 1898-Cuban Theater", "Spanish-American War of 1898-Philippine Islands Theater", "Spanish-American War of 1898-Puerto Rican Theater". The contents of collections that pertain to more than one campaign are listed under "Spanish-American War of 1898-General" even though the activity of the individual, e.g., Theodore Roosevelt, has been identified usually with one campaign, e.g., Cuba. Those collections relating to Pacific islands, e.g., Marianas or Guam, appear in the "Spanish-American War of 1898-Philippine Islands Theater" listing. Each item in this selected listing contains a brief indication of content; a more complete description for each entry is available by searching the Library of Congress Online Catalog. To gain further information about each collection, contact the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress regarding the availability of a register for that collection.

Maps of the Philippines

The Geography and Map Division houses a rich collection of maps for the areas involved in the Spanish-American War, including the Philippines. Bibliographic and cartographic information on the Library's collections from the Geography and Map Reading Room can be accessed in the following list. A number of maps of the Philippines have been scanned and are available online through the Library of Congress Digital Collections. You may also search more broadly for all digitized maps and other cartographic resources from or about the Philippines.

List of maps available for viewing in the Geography and Map Division:

General Maps

Author: H. Walkenhorst-Eng
Title: Map of the Spanish and American Trenches on the South of Manila
Date: August 1898
Scale: Scale not provided Dimension: 47.5 X 37.5 cm
Call No.: United States War * Spanish-American War * Philippines * South Manila* 1898 * Walkenhorst
Description:Map paper on top of canvas. Legend shows American, Spanish, and Insurgents trench lines

Author: J.H. Watkins
Title: Map of Manila and Vicinity showing positions of troops prior to the battle of February 5th and location of the military Telegraph Lines then in Operation.
Date: Feb. 1899
Scale: 1:25,000
Dimension: 51.5 x 73.5 cm
Call No.: US-War * Spanish-American War * Manila and Vicinity (Troop positions) * 1899 * 1:25,000 * Watkins * Army Signal Corps
Description:map is blue on white with tape. A table is titled, "Index to troops engaged and their final positions."

Author: Sellner
Title: Plan of Cavite, Manila, Morong, Bulacan, and Pampanja Provinced Covering entire scope of American Operatins in the Island of Luzon to May 1, 1899
Date: 1899
Scale: 1:100,000
Dimension: 47 x 77 cm
Call No.: US- War *Spanish-American War * Manila Bay Region * (Naval Battle * c. 1899 * 1:100,000 * Sellner
Description:Map cossets of deployment of Spanish and American fleet; block houses; railway; villages. The map brown water stains.

Author: Ourland, del
Title: Showing Operations of Second Division, 8th Army Corps from March 1st to May 31st, 1899
Date: 1899
Scale: 1:15,000
Dimension: 75 x 68 cm
Call No.: US-War * Spanish-American War* Manila (vicinity * 1899 * 1:15,15,000 * US Engineers "Co.A
Description:Julius Biern & Co. Printer. Map consists of squadron, artillery, American trenches, Insurgents trenches, railroads, blockhouses, roads, and trails

Author: W.G. Haan
Title: City of Manila and Vicinity
Date: 1899
Scale: 1:25,000
Dimension: 92 x 72.5 cm
Call No.: US- War * Spanish American War * Manila, City of * 1899 * 1:25,000 * Haan, W.G. * US Engineers
Description:Map is blue. No legend nor key. Placement of Brigades under Gen. McAuthur, Gen. Hale, Gen. Anderson, Gen. Otis, and General Ovenshine. 2 copies

Author: Enrique D'Almote
Title: Samar Island. Philippines
Date: June 1901
Scale: 1:200,000
Dimension: 73 x 52 cm
Call No.: Philiippine Islands. Samar Island. 1901. 1:200,000. U.S. Army Engineers. Inset maps. Blue print. G and M has 8' x 10' film ref.
Description:Blue print of Spanish words showing Provinces and capitals. Three insets 1st) Isla Daram and Buao; 2nd) Costa Oriental de Samar; 3rd) Immediaciones de Lanang.

Author: C.H. Ourand. Tr
Title: Mindanao: Distribution of Races
Date: July 1900
Scale: 1: 1,6000,000
Dimension: 41 x 39 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Mindanao Island. Ethnology. Distribution of Races. 1900. 1: 1,600,000. Hdqts. Department of Mindanao and Jolo
Description:Map on tracing paper showing racial distribution for Visan Filipino; Moro; and Pagan tribes. The map also shows the towns occupied by American troops as well as Spanish Province boundaries.

Author: C.H. Ourand and D.H. Blakelock
Title: Theatre of Military Operations in Luzon, 1899
Date: 1899
Scale: 1'= 3 miles
Dimension: 2 sheets 60 x 94 cm each
Call No.: Philippines. Luzon Island. (Theater of Military Operations. 1899. 1':3 miles. War dept.
Description:General Map showing towns and railroads with no legend. The map is in two parts.

Author: Peter E. Lamar
Title:Of the Battlefields in the Luzon Island showing Operations of 8th Army Corps during the Spanish-American and Filipino-American Wars 1891-99.
Date: 1899
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 151 x 102 cm
Call No.: Philippines Luzon Island. 1899. Lamar
Description:Map shows where battles where fought during the tow years including where America and Insurgent trrenches were located at. Interesting to note that they mention in the title the 'Filipino-American War'

Author: Enrique D' Almonte y Muriel
Title: Provincia
Date: 189-?
Scale: Scale Not Provided
Dimension: 64 x 25 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Manila (city). -vicinity. (189?). Map found in Admiral Dewey's house
Description:The map is annotated including markings of what could be a route path as well as a grid of Manila City. The actual peice provided is 1/4 or 1/3 of a total map.

Author: Chofre y Comp
Title: Carta General del Archipelago Filipino
Date: 1897
Scale: 1: 1,400,000
Dimension: 111 x 81 cm
Call No.: Philippines. 1897-1899. i inch + 2 miles. ca. 1: 1,400,000. US Army. 3 copies
Description:Inset of the division between Pacific Ocean and China Sea. The map is in Spanish. The map shows all of the Philippines and cable car lines in red.

Author: C.H. Ourand nad D.H. Blackelock
Title: The Theatre of MIlitaray Operations in Luzon 1899
Date: 1899
Scale: 1: 200,000
Dimension: 150 x 94 cm
Call No.: Philipppines. Luzon Island. Military.1899. 1: 200,000. US War Dept. 2nd Edition
Description:On the edge of the map there are tares that could have been done from thumb tax or nails. The words on the map are in Spanish.

Author: Enrique D'Almonte y Muriel
Title: Distrito de Leyte: Bosquejo Topográfico
Date: 1898
Scale: 1: 200,000
Dimension: 2 sheets 57 x 62 each
Call No.: Philippines. Leyte Island. 1895. 1:200,000. Muriel. 2 copies
Description:Spanish Map divided in tow setions on fragile paper. The map also shows the Islands of Biliram and Panaon.

Author: Lt. W.G. Haan
Title: Map of the City of Manila and Vicinity
Date: 1898
Scale: 1: 7,200
Dimension: 128 x 98 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Manila (city). 1898. 1:7,200. Lt. W.G. Haan- under derection of Gen. McArthur. blue line print
Description:The blue line map is ripped in half. Street blocks of Manila and other neighboring towns are shown.

Author: U.S. War Dept.
Title: Southern Suburbs of the City of Manila and Vicinity: Including the towns of Sta. Ana, San Pedro Manati, and Pasai
Date: [19-?]
Scale: 1 inch =1725 ft
Dimension: 24 x 31 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Manila (city). (-vicinity). [10-?]. 1 inch =1725 ft. U.S. War Dept.
Description:The map claims to show where Insurgent trenches were but by looking at this map with no legend you can not tell.

Author: C. Muller; R. Rosario; J. Tulentino
Title: Luzon Island. Philippines: Parts of Provinces of Pampanga, Bulacan, Manila, and Morong.
Date: 1901
Scale: 1'= 2 miles
Dimension: 59 x 58 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Manila (city). -vicinity. 1091. 1'= 2 miles. U.S. Engineers.
Description:It's a map of natural resources and agricultural goods

Author: Author Not Provided
Title: Photostat of a map showing the boundary line established by treaty of Dec. 10, 1898 between the US and Spain
Date: Dec. 10, 1898
Scale: 1 inch to about 65 miles
Dimension: 26 x 18 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Boundaries. (US and Spain). 1898 (December 10). 1 inch to about 65 miles. Photostat
Description:Shows the vertical and horizontal line established in Dec. 10, 1898.

Author: Geo. H. Walker
Title: Map of the Philippine Islands and Sulu Archipelago
Date: 1898
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 41x 33 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. 1898. Walker
Description:Information given on the amount of steel by the tons of cruisers and dangerous areas near Philippine Island is provided.

Author: N.Y. Times
Title: The Philippine Island
Date: May 22, 1898
Scale: 1: 70 miles
Dimension: 30 x 21 cm
Call No.: Philippine Island. 1898. 1: 70 miles. NY Times. Supplement
Description:There is a brief description on the bottom of the map of the size, resources, population, and revenue.

Author: Geo. C. Sellner
Title: Plan of Manila and Suburbs
Date: 1899
Scale: 1: 32,808.
Dimension: 49 x 73 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Manila (city). 1899. 1: 32,808. Geo. C. Sellner. Building Index
Description:Locations of Military, Official, Educational Centers as well as statues, monuments, theaters, and markets are shown on a street marked plan of the city. A very large projected 'Wharves (not completed)' on the mouth of Pasig River (principle river in Manila) is shown.

Author: Geo. de Moore
Title: City and Harbor of Ceby
Date: June 1900
Scale: 1:10,560.
Dimension: 52 x 87 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Cebu (city). 1900. 1:10,560. Official Chief Engineer. blue line print.
Description:Fathom lines as well as Coral Reef near Cebu are shown. Grid line of city blocks are shown.

Author: E.W. Goff and H.S. Goof
Title: Goff's Historical Map of the Philippine Islands. Spanish-American War 1898 and Philippine-American War
Date: 1898
Scale: Scale Not Provided
Dimension: 34 x 52 cm
Call No.: Philippine Island. War. 1898. Goff
Description:3 insets: 1st) the Philippine Islands as a whole; 2nd) a picture of Admiral Dewey; 3rd) a picture of 'Olympia.' The Principle man is of the region around Manila, battle ship locations on the coast along the route route Dewey took on 5/1/98 entering Manila. On land there are arrows showing the direction troops took especially Lawton's troops.

Author: Montero and Gay
Title: Progress Map of Signal Corps Telegraph lines and cables
Date: 1900
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 107 x 51 cm
Call No.: Philippine. Telecommunications. 1900. M.S. Signal Office. Based on map of Montero and Gay
Description:There is another version of this map reproduced in 1901. Military telegraph lines, cables, projected cables, projected military telegraph are shown. British cables are also shown.

Author: A.L. Westgard
Title: Island of Luzon
Date: 1899
Scale: 1: 820,000
Dimension: 89 x 69 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Luzon Island. 1899. 1: 820,000. Robinson. -insets in margin
Description:Province boundaries in Luzon Island displayed in different colors. 3 insets surround the Island. 1st of Manila streets; and of the Philippine Islands as a whole; 3rd of the Pacific Ocean from California to the Philippine Island including Guam

Author: C.H. Ourand; D.H. Blackelock; and E.H. Stuck
Title: Military Map of the Isle of Luzon
Date: 1901
Scale: 1' = 8 1/2 mile
Dimension: 133 x 99 cm
Call No.: Philippine. Luzon Island. 1901. 1'= 8 1/2 miles. War Dept. 2 copies
Description:Spanish names on a political map showing telegraph lines and roads. 1 inset of 'Manila Streets'

Author: J.R.S.
Title: Disputed Area Between the Provinces of Albay and Sorsogon; Island of Luzon
Date: 19?
Scale: 1: 10,000
Dimension: 87 x 296 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Luzon Island. (Albay and Sorsogon areas). 19-?. 1: 10,000. Municipality of Albay
Description:Annotated map using a blue pen and pencil on tracing paper. The map shows where existing Provincial Municipalities and governmental activities are taking place and where would a division make more sense.

Author: C.H. Ourand and D.H. Blacklock
Title: Theatre of Military Operations in Luzon 1899
Date: 1899
Scale: 1'= 4 miles
Dimension: 120 x 97 (each copy)
Call No.: Philippines. Luzon Island. Military Operations. 1899. 1'= 4 miles. US War Dept.
Description:Military Map with no legend showing Luzon in two parts

Author: US Army of Engineers
Title: Isla Paragua- Military District #4- Dept. of Mindanao and Jolo
Date: March 1900
Scale: 1: 800,000
Dimension: 84 x 63cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Palawan Island. 1900. 1: 800,000. US Army Engineers. blue print
Description:Blue print of Paragua and neighboring Islands

Author: War Dept. Adj. General's Office Military Information Division
Title: Map of Philippine Islands and Adjacent Seas
Date: 1898
Scale: 1: 1,800,000
Dimension: 101 x 56 cm
Call No.: Philippine Island. 1898. 1: 1,800,000. War Dept. Adjutant General's Office Military Information Division
Description:A key of resources such as clay and coral is given. An insert, 17 x 32 cm of the Pacific Ocean is shown US South America, Japan, Philippine Island, Australia, and numerous other islands in the Pacific

Author: C.H. Stone, lettered by C.H. Ourand
Title: Map of the Mandanao Philippine Islands
Date: 1902
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 78 x 94 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Mindanao Island. 1902. U.S War Dept. 2 copies
Description:The copy backed in linen was used. No legend

Author: C.H. Ourand, D.H. Blackelock, and E.H. Stuck
Title: Military Map of the Isle of Luzon
Date: 1900
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 129 x 96 cm; inset: 61 x 41 cm
Call No.: Philippines. Luzon Island. 1900. Military Map. US War Dept.
Description:The map has conventional signs, a legend and a key of abbreviations. The manila inset has 'edificios militares,' 'edificios civiles' and 'edificios religiosos' as its legends. The inset scale is 1: 11,000.

Title: Plans de la Isla de Negros Occidental y Oriental
Date: 1898
Scale: 1:500,000
Dimension: 49 x 35 cm
Call No.: Philippines Islands. Negros Island. - Occidental and Oriental. 1898. 1:500,000. blue print
Description:A blue print map that has a legend showing pueblo civil, barrieos, seccion de la G.C., and micion

Author: Crowell Kirkpatrick
Title: Philippine Islands
Date: 1899
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 48 x 32 cm inset: 9 x 8 1/2 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. Boundary. 1899. Crowell Kirkpatrick.
Description: Map shows names that have been converted from Spanish subdivisions into provinces. US boundary (by peace treaty) is drawn around Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. Inset of Manila Bay shows Dewey's like of advance and battle movements, along with American vessels. The reverse shows North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean and the distance from one Asian city or island to the US Western Coast.

Author: D. Claudio Montero y Gay
Title: Carta General (in 2 pages) del Archipelago Filipino
Date: 1875 (Madrid); 1899 (War Dept.)
Scale: 1: 1,650,000
Dimension: 127 x 96 cm
Call No.: Philippine Islands. 1899. 1: 1,650,000. US War Dept. (Spanish Hydrographic Office Map of 1875). 3 copies
Description:There are 3 original copies. The one we used a fourth copy was the one the War Department used. It is backed in canvas. It is a geographic map.

Author: Geographische Verlagshandlung Dietrich Reimer {Ernst Vohsen} Berlin. Wilhelmstrasse 29.
Title: Spanish-Amerikanisher Kriegsshauplatz. Die Philippinen, Das Ostl. Nordamerika und Welkarte
Date: 1898
Call No.: Philippine Islands. United States (part) and World. 1898. Reimer (Vohsen)
Description:A German map which shows different European empire's colonies in the world. Shows 'ChineischReich,' Korea, and 'JapanischesReich.' Different legend shows scale, 'Vereinigte Staten von Amerika' and 'Britische Besitzungen.' Both a geographic and a political map.

Author: Author Not Provided
Title: Sketch (not to scale) of scene of conflict between detachment 28' Infantry. U.S.V. under Col. William E. Birkhimer and rebels at Yalang Barrio, Pueblo San Luis, Province of Matanzas, Luzon. To accompany report, July 19, 1900.
Date: July 17, 1900
Scale: No Scale Provided
Dimension: 33 x 22 cm
Call No.: Philippine IS. War - Engagement. 1900. Inf.= Rebels. Yalang Barrio. Pueblo San Luis. Batanzas Prov., Luzon.
Description:Sketch shows US troops, rebels, streams, old road, deep Canons, a) trenches made by enemy, b) shelter of paddy trenches. Old roads almost impassable.

Author: Office, Chief Engineer Division of the Philippines, Manila, P.I.
Title: Department of Northern Luzon Showing Military District and Stations of Troops
Date: July 1901
Scale: not given
Dimensions: blueline print, 90 x 55 cm
Call No.: Philippines Luzon Island 1901 U.S. Engineers
Comments: Luzon is divided into four parts.

Author: Engineer Office Department of the Pacific
Title: Centro de Luzon: Plano Conjunto de las 7 provincias: Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Bataan, y Zambales
Date: February 1900
Scale: 1:400,000
Dimensions: blueline print, 67 x 57 cm
Call No.: Philippines Luzon Island 1901 U.S. Engineers
Comments: Streams, towns, administrative districts are shown.

Author: War Department, Adjutant General's Office
Title: Military Map of the Isle of Luzon
Date: 1898
Scale: 1 inch = 8 miles
Dimensions: 133 x 99 cm. inset: Manila 61 x 42
Call No.: Philippines Luzon Island 1898 1 in = 8 miles U.S. War Dept.
Comments: Luzon map has a legend titled "Conventional Signs" and a key called "abbreviations." Manila inset legends are: "edificios militares," "edificios civiles," and "edificios religiosos."